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System of preventing marine environment pollution from damaged tankers

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Abstract: Tanker casualties that happen from time to time in the world cause serious environment with disastrous effects. Baltic Sea being closed sea is particularly vulnerable to such casualties, and if it happens the whole life in the sea could be destroyed. Risk of tanker casualty in the Baltic Sea is rather high. It is essential to be prepared for such a casualty and a system of salvage operation should be developed that may be used in case of emergency. The paper describes proposal of the lay-out of such system and summarizes important problems that are relevant for development of particular tasks related to the system. Currently the system is under consideration by the Foundation and actually one of its important elements, methodology of prediction of the path of damaged tanker has been already developed. This is described in more detail.
1. INTRODUCTION
From time to time the public opinion is shocked by the information that somewhere in the world there was serious shipping accident where damaged large crude oil tanker caused disastrous pollution of the sea environment. In consequence hundreds kilometers of the seaside were polluted and were of no use for tourism, recreation and for fishery, sea life was damaged for a long time and resulting cost of recovery was counted in hundreds of millions of US dollars. The first catastrophic disaster happened in 1967 where large tanker
TORREY CANYON went aground in the British Channel spilling more than hundred thousand tons of oil polluting large length of shoreline caused strong reaction of the
International Maritime Organization (UN agency) and maritime authorities. New international design rules for tankers were hastily drafted and more stringent safety requirements agreed upon.
2. IMPORTANT OIL SPILLS AND LESSONS LEARNED
The first serious tanker casualty that happened in European waters happened in 1967 when the supertanker Torrey Canyon because of the master fault hit the Seven Stone rocks near the Scilly Island, the hull of the tanker was ruptured and spilled oil caused the most serious ecological disaster. Several other serious tanker casualties happened in the years
1967 to 1977 as shown in the table 1 and the casualties stirred public opinion and maritime authorities and as a result extraordinary conference was organized by the International
Maritime Organization (IMO) in 1978 that adopted Protocol to SOLAS and MARPOL
Conventions that included important amendments to those conventions related to tanker safety (IMO 1978). (...)

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Źródło: Czasopismo Logistyka

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