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Uncertainty of car motion reconstruction

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Abstract: One of the basic tasks of the accident reconstruction is to define values of parameters of participants of the accident before its actual occurrence. The assessment of correct behaviours is made and the court decides whether the accident participants are guilty or innocent. Therefore, the credibility of specific values is essential. The use of so-called accident recorders - EDR/ADR type of devices, as an alternative compared to classical methods for accidents reconstruction - has become more common over the past years. The paper includes basic notions related to his type of devices, describes potential sources of uncertainty of the car motion reconstruction results obtained on the basis of their records. The examples presented confirm their usefulness, however, they also indicate possible significant errors in the motion parameters assessment if simplified devices are used (where vehicle body lean movements in motion are not analysed).
Often a lack of a lot of key information on the course of an event is the essential problem while reconstructing accidents. For more than 50 years in aviation the so-called
„black boxes” are used i.e. devices that continuously record a number of selected parameters for purposes of potential reconstruction of a crash (data characterizing a flight, status of the plane components, also voice, and recently also image from the cockpit). The oldest devices recording quantities that describe motion of vehicles in road transport are tachographs. In 90-ties of 20th century EDR (Event Data Recorder) devices occurred reminding aerial „black boxes”. Those are special devices meant for the accident reconstruction purposes. The may also be found under another English name: ADR (Accident Data Recorder) or German UDS (Unfalldatenspeicher). Further on in the paper, the acronym ADR shall be used for this type of the device. Potential advantages in using this type of devices seem to be considerably high. First of all, the information resource on the course of the event becomes more extensive. The basic advantage is the fact that here we use the values being measured in real road situation, not the ones assumed
by an expert during the hereto analysis. Therefore, the problem of uncertainty of the assumed values of parameters, describing the situation being analysed as well as inadequacies of the analysis effecting from simplifications in applied mathematical models of the vehicle/s motion, their collisions, etc., does not occur. (...)

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